Rain formation explained:
This is a query which often comes to mind when, either we experiencing precipitation in our lands, or facing drought and are in a dire need of some kind of water relief.
Now two things to remember here is:
First, warm air has more capacity to hold water vapor than the cold one. Analogically, it is like, dissolving sugar in a hot cup of water is easier than the mild one.
Second, According to laws of physics, the hot fluid, being less dense than the Mild one, rises above the latter. While the latter takes the place of the former. The cycle takes place in a circular fashion. This process is known as convection current.
Below we look at some of the understanding in brief the scientists have built till now using weather related researches and experiments.
What happens is: when the solar radiation produces heat over the oceans, rivers or lakes, the water molecules on the surface there gets evaporated into nearby hot air. Sure, the evaporation process increases, if the wind blows fast on the oceanic surface.
The air high-up in the atmosphere is cooler than that nearer the sea level because sun rays are absorbed more at the earth crust than at the troposphere. It is measured that as you go up on higher altitudes, the temperature decreases by approximately 7c for every 1 km ascent.
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The hot humid air, according to the principles we have laid down in the beginning, rise to higher altitudes. In the elevation process, it faces cold temperatures of the upper atmosphere and its vapor holding capacity diminishes. When the rising air temperature is reduced enough such that the escaped water vapors start to condense into water droplets, cloud formation begins. The critical temperature, which begins the cloud formation process, is called dew point.
Of course, not every cloud rains, because the water droplet formation is not enough for a precipitation- unless they combine into millions of big water drops- which are heavy enough not to keep floating anymore in the air.
Rain at mountain peaks:
In mountainous areas, the gigantic peaks obstruct the blowing path of the warm moist air. In such a case, the air is bent to flow up in the atmosphere. At reaching higher altitudes, it cools down and the water vapors condense into water drops, forming clouds. Rain pours down for some time and the remaining drier air again blow downwards, in which case the water drops again gets evaporated. The cycle repeats the whole day.
READ MORE : HOW DO CLOUDS AND RAIN FORMS?